might arise for any analysis of focus group data, and utilize techniques from both the above approaches. All rights reserved. When you look at whether the group achieved a “common ground”, or a kind of a shared identity or self-positioning, you need to pay attention to how the individuals constructed this identity together and how each participant responded to the construction of this identity (did he/she contribute to it, and self-positioned him/herself as a group member? The analysis of focus group data can be quite complex, and involves both the verbal content of the debate and the non-verbal communication. Why thematic analysis in qualitative research. In the Shanghai focus group, the participants, who did not all share one major, used their position as all Chinese nationals to possibly establish common ground and self-position themselves as members of one group, using the collective ‘we’ when they spoke about Chinese people. �/O��Af�� � Data analysis. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8 (3), 1-21. Consideration 1: Is thematic analysis useful for me? & Zoran, A.G. (2009). Thematic analysis is used in qualitative research and focuses on examining themes or patterns of meaning within data. 0000001653 00000 n This assumed shared status enabled them to talk ‘safely’ on the subject of language-related challenges faced by students, as they could refer to ‘those who have a poorer knowledge of English’ when discussing this topic, indicating that attitudes vary according to field of study and English proficiency. Thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006) was undertaken using the two techniques. documents or field notes) and/or audible and visual data (e.g. Thematic analysis goes beyond simply counting phrases or words in a text (as in content analysis) and explores explicit and implicit meanings within the data. Asbury, J.-E. (1995). Still, focus group data are often under-analysed and used, for example, to simply report emerging themes and coding frequency. Overview of Focus Group Research. 46 (4), 1125-1136. Newbury Park: Sage. (1990). This is a short practical guide to Qualitative Data Analysis. Was the participant silenced?). 0000009228 00000 n The interviewer has just asked Barry, ‘Have you had to give anything up that you enjoyed doing that was important to you?’, and he replies: 1. The ‘discussion’ in this group became more of an ‘interview within a focus group’, led by the ‘native’ English speakers. Focus groups are an effective way of capturing the knowledge, interpretations, and opinions of multiple individuals at once. The analysis of focus group data should, ideally, involve looking at three “layers” (Willis et al.) This example "is taken from a study of carers for people with dementia and is an interview with Barry, who is now looking after his wife, who has Alzheimer's disease. Abstract As the number of learning and teaching continuing professional development (CPD) courses increases in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), so too does the accompanying number of learning innovations being implemented and evaluated. After the focus groups were transcribed, two research assistants were hired to conduct a content analysis of the transcripts. Willis, K., Green, J., Daly, J., Williamson, L. & Bandyopadhyay, M. (2008). @],@�~0�Q��AHD���RR�4?,d�1���4���� ���@Z ���"V��&_�d��j.j��aqq:�4WrɆ���3��x�{x=�8���{�a_��K�7`q��H�10�߀'��-�@�� &޾P Wilkinson (1998) argues that many articles based on focus group research appear to be treating the data as identical to individual interview data, and the unique aspects of focus groups are habitually ignored in the analysis. The most common analyses of focus group results involve a transcript of the dis- cussion and a summary of the conclusions that can be drawn. Focus group analysis has some subtle differences from analysis of other forms of qualitative data. I am passionate about research and I started Qualitative Researcher to share my knowledge and teach research skills to students and professionals worldwide, Qualitative Research Methods – Interviews, Free online course on how to develop a research idea, Section 2 – Developing research questions, Free “Qualitative researcher’s toolkit” book, View/Download the book (free registration required), Galloway, Kriukow and Numajiri (2017: 29), qualitative research specialist Edinburgh. of the discussion – “the individual, the group, and the group interaction” (ibid.). Focusing exclusively on individual participants’ accounts (which would be the case if “the analysis of focus group data [was] not much different from the analysis of any other kind of interview data”, as suggested above) would mean that we are overlooking the most unique and valuable aspects of focus group discussion – the group’s views and group dynamics. CHAPTER 1. 0000001235 00000 n 0000007077 00000 n 0000006975 00000 n b0��2 Initial data analysis was undertaken using Microsoft Excel to support the organisation of the text to particular themes. There are occa- sions, however, when a transcript is unnecessary. When analysing focus group data, you may use the following checklist to generate some ideas about what to pay attention to: Onwuegbuzie et al. Findings from this will be used to form the basis of co-produced recommendations for the ICD-11. Well, the only thing that we've really given up is – well we used to 3. go dancing. endstream endobj 134 0 obj<> endobj 135 0 obj<> endobj 136 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 137 0 obj<> endobj 138 0 obj<> endobj 139 0 obj<> endobj 140 0 obj<> endobj 141 0 obj<> endobj 142 0 obj<> endobj 143 0 obj<>stream Qualitative research can explore the complexity and meaning of social phenomena,1,2 for example patients' experiences of illness3 and the meanings of apparently irrational behaviour such as unsafe sex.4 Data for qualitative study may comprise written texts (e.g. (2012). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. In Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y. 0000078179 00000 n How Focus Group Analysis Is Different There is not one way to do qualitative analysis. Perils and possibilities: achieving best evidence from focus groups in public health research. The analysis of focus group data should, ideally, involve looking at three “layers” (Willis et al.) This process of qualitative data analysis involved the open and axial coding stages proposed by grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). However, in the Sophia focus group, the participants did not seem to have established a shared identity or status from which they could speak in a collective voice. Onwuegbuzie, A., Dickinson, W.B., Leech, N.L. 0000059336 00000 n This transcript is usually much shorter than is the full transcript in a transcript-based (2008). This training offers a brief overview of some qualitative research considerations, followed by key points for focus group analysis. �+��`^1 E���e,)̋ 0000000016 00000 n structured interviews, using data extracts from her interviews to illustrate this. Were these views supported? Thematic Analysis of Focus Groups With Consumers and Carers of Mental Illness. ), or to whether these views influenced the discussion (how did the other group members react? Focus Group. Smithson, J. Feel free to explore some of the sources I list below and scroll all the way down to read an extract from a report for the British Council, in which I specifically focus on how the analysed groups managed establishing a “common ground”. debriefing team. Well she can't do it now so I have to g… When you use thematic coding to analyze customer feedback for example, you can learn which themes are most frequent in feedback. Revised on August 14, 2020. <<81F5B61739D6244D904FF6252964F28D>]>> Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Focus groups could provide information about a range of ideas and feelings that individuals have about certain issues, as well as illuminating the differences in perspec-tive between groups of individuals. “A deeper analysis revealed that the discussed topics and opinions shared by the groups varied in relation to the ways the participants were establishing common ground and positioning the group as a whole, as well as self-positioning themselves within the group (Hydén and Bülow, 2003). You may also see if this person tried to reinforce his/her opinion more than once and, again, how the group reacted. >S�e0�P�G��uL�R�H��Q��|�G��<9s�:{� �+[�+w��D��ki��T�m2�96�G\w"���R����x8V���. Similarly, when you focus on the “group” and the “group interaction” layers, it is not possible to ignore the individual roles. i��p����Qm��W^�̍����r�1��DC�C;¿O�Gs�j[S�w�e��@�m�aX�� x�b```f``���d$32 � +�0p\�1)0�`h|ۨ�P���@��� 0000001322 00000 n Typically, these seemingly informal discussions occur in a group of no more than 12 individuals (Asbury, 1995; Smithson, 2008), who share some common characteristics (Franz, 2011) and “have a direct experience of the topic” (Acocella, 2012: 1127), and, thus, are treated as ‘experts’ (Stewart and Shamdasani, 1990). Inductive thematic analysis (TA): open coding: Evaluation of an innovative, evidence‐guided, PBL approach 11: In order to understand the experiences of students and PBL facilitators during curriculum change to a PBL programme, the authors used TA to analyse focus group data: Deductive thematic/content analysis: predetermined categories %%EOF Thematic analysis is a method of analyzing qualitative data.It is usually applied to a set of texts, such as interview transcripts.The researcher closely examines the data to identify common themes – topics, ideas and patterns of meaning that come up repeatedly. Qualitative Health Research. In fact, one of two ‘native’ English speakers’ position as an expert was determined at the very start of the discussion and this, in addition to his background as a relatively experienced teacher, possibly heightened this ‘expert’ position. They spoke of themselves as collective ‘majors in English education’ on one hand, and talked about other students as ‘them’ or ‘other students’ on the other (see Appendix A for an extract). 0000000676 00000 n You are required to write up TWO themes that you have found in the focus group data that you have been given (please see the focus group transcript which AKA the data file). Handbook of. It is a method that allows you to identify patterns of meaning across a dataset (Braun & Clarke, 2018). Its popularity partly reflects its independence from any particular theoretical approach or epistemology persuasion (Braun & Clarke, 2006). 151 0 obj<>stream This method can emphasize both organization and rich description of the data set and theoretically informed interpretation of meaning. Definition: Thematic analysisis a systematic method of breaking down and organizing rich data from qualitative research by tagging individual observations and quotations with appropriate codes, to facilitate the discovery of significant themes. On the other hand, this shared status seemed to result in some group members’ opinions being silenced or ignored (see Appendix B for an extract), arguably because of the participants’ evaluation of what is socially desirable and acceptable in their circumstances. Thematic analysis has been poorly branded, yet widely used in qualitative research (Braun & Clarke, 2006), and has been rarely appreciated in the same way as grounded theory, ethnography, or phenomenology.Braun and Clarke (2006) argued that thematic analysis should be a foundational method for qualitative analysis, as it provides core skills for conducting many other forms of qualitative analysis. 2nd Ed. Franz, N.K. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim by a third party. The group included mixed nationalities and was the only focus group which included a ‘native’ English speaker. 0000010589 00000 n You want to look at one individual’s contributions to the group, as well as at how other members treated him/her. recordings of interviews, focus groups or consultations). (2009) propose another useful structure for focus group analysis which is centred around a combination of different data analysis techniques – constant comparison method (which may involve comparing themes emerging in different focus groups), content analysis (e.g. Focus groups lasted between 45 and 60 minutes and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. H��W[�ܶ~���Ǚ��%uW�p��q�MRx��H����3�u��e7�_��R�z}*���8Թ|�����Q�����Wo_)>���ׯ^xw����\$Q(�W��Do���h�ڗ*QB/ Ao�߼S�0x_�믔Pbw��K���D��R��5��}%>`�+���ۤ��{�VWeV&*��0Oc�b�J�RJ�ھb����e���W�A|�Mr?�t�4�7}7��k=����o�"t.I�,?��U(�;���P X��jGӟz3��Z�݊[vr`'%� #wS�C�F��4�� �'ŕ��{�l *���<4��W�{���U$C?›�b�"��(��hz1�ۭB ���t�;]M2���7ݗ��C����I*�4�H��������[q7ix�,lQ�lsO����ʍ�zz]�-���z3�b��K��5� �,�]O�II����Q� ���R��I?���z;�� �p�ôo��B�L�(�����Tdw���YƉ��ug��6�WF�p�oC 4th Ed. As the name implies, a thematic analysis involves finding themes. Did he/she distance him/herself from the group?). As data, speeches, and individual interviews have some similarities, however, speeches are 2.1. The unfocused focus group: benefit or bane? Thematic analysis is a method for qualitative data analysis. Importantly, these different layers are not necessarily “steps” – thus, in practice, the analysis of one layer is difficult to separate from another (although I think there are also some guidelines that suggest doing so). Theory and Practice. �e�����B�bo�����W+AYT ��Lkz=�R�]�eK�5茮��ۑ��D�#���tS��D�֎s����r4t�c5����p���]�f�4D (eds.) This dataset illustrates an approach to conducting thematic analysis. '��8L��0q4j:t,p�� b^�!�� Q��j�G��� Each focus group lasted between 30 and 55 min, generating 10 h of recordings. Two service user focus groups will be conducted for each of these diagnoses: Personality Disorder, Bipolar I Disorder, Schizophrenia, Depressive Disorder and Generalised Anxiety Disorder. 0000002169 00000 n Data were analysed using data-driven thematic analysis (reference). INTRODUCTION TO APPLIED THEMATIC ANALYSIS 5 DEFINING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Before talking about process, we should first define what we mean by “qualita- tive research, ” since the definition influences how we characterize qualitative data analysis, the data items to be used in our analysis, and the types of analyses 133 0 obj <> endobj Another mode for analyzing data from a focus group is tape-based analysis, wherein the researcher listens to the tape of the focus group and then creates an abridged transcript. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 33, 131-6. Most people who ask for specific analytic tools in focus groups do so because they don’t have experience with analyzing other kinds of qualitative data, so they think there must be something unique about focus groups.”. Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research. When decisions must be made quickly (which is common in marketing studies) and the … ��Ԋ+fd�̢��c3�[�TUsr��^yݸ�q�j�6�E�|K��j�8��N�q��4i����)��̎� m'���jj'�$�}��+!��u���F�����V��X�hie��B@�X� �T|Y�c#Hl�K��աI��Ӡ�uK=rS;jǽBH�$� �=�i� t�KG�1� ��```�� EXkh�#((l� Needless to say, they couldn’t be more wrong. BARRY 2. This was the only group that did not discuss language-related challenges and they were more critical of using languages other than English in EMI classes.”. They also, eventually, shared their own language-related challenges, which was arguably the result of the ‘safe’ environment they established. %PDF-1.6 %���� The approach to analyze data in qualitative research cannot be the same as in the quantitative research.Quantitative research focuses on numeric data and therefore the aim to achieve objectivity is far easier than in the qualitative research. 5 (4), 414-420. 0 I am an experienced researcher, academic tutor and research consultant who has worked for the universities of Oxford and Edinburgh. coding the content of the discussion and paying attention to coding frequencies), and keywords-in-context and discourse analysis, both of which involve careful examination of the use of words, and language as a whole, throughout the focus group discussion (at both the group and individual levels). 0000005152 00000 n Refer to the Week 5 Handout: Content Analysis of Focus Groups. Third, we introduce a new way of analyzing focus group data, what we term micro-interlocutor analysis, which incorporates and analyzes information from the focus group by delineating which participants respond to each question, the order of responses, and the nature of the responses (e.g., non sequitur, rambling, focused) as well as the nonverbal communication used by each of the … Definition: A theme: 1. is a description of a belief, practice, need, or another phenomenon that is discovered from the data 2. emerg… Qualitative data from the focus groups will be thematically analyzed using Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six-step thematic content analysis method. ), to whether these views changed throughout the discussion (were they influenced by the discussion? Acocella, I. The data from these groups will be coded and inductively analysed using a thematic analysis approach. 0000003324 00000 n 2.2 Data Analysis The focus group discussion was recorded and later transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis begins with weeding out biases and establishing your overarching impressions of the data. I would not even want to try to discuss focus group analysis in much detail in such a short blog post, but I do hope that the above gives you a general idea of what it may involve (and that you will understand that it is definitely NOT the same as individual interview analysis!). xref 133 19 Focus groups. Often, TA is used in research studies and subsequently labeled as qualitative research, without providing the necessary details about how the analysis reduced the data into workable themes and the emerging conclusions. A Thematic analysis (TA) is a widely-used qualitative data analysis method. There is an umbrella of strategies. Published on September 6, 2019 by Jack Caulfield. Importantly, these different layers are not necessarily “steps” – thus, in practice, the analysis of one layer is difficult to separate from another (although I think there are also some guidelines that suggest doing so). 0000010395 00000 n The aim of this module is twofold: i) to develop students’ understanding of a range of different approaches to collecting and analysing qualitative data; ii) to give students hands-on experience of undertaking some of these approaches in order to develop their own competence in carrying out qualitative research. ... use the columns to structure important variables of your data analysis … Or ignored? Thematic analysis is a hugely popular analytic method. There are occa- sions, however, when a transcript is unnecessary or )... Ideally, involve looking at three thematic analysis of focus group data layers ” ( Willis et al. ) or ). ( reference ) way to do thematic analysis s ( 2006 ) was undertaken the... Opinion more than once and, again, how the group included mixed nationalities and the... Again, how the group reacted we 've really given up is – well we to... Consideration 1: is thematic analysis, 1990 ), L. & Bandyopadhyay M.. Also see if this person tried to reinforce his/her opinion more than once and,,... T be more wrong, 131-6 and possibilities: achieving best evidence from focus groups: a guide! Qualitative research considerations, followed by key points for focus group analysis is Different is. Who has worked for the ICD-11 most frequent in feedback and visual data (.! Of the ‘ safe ’ environment they established of public health, 33 thematic analysis of focus group data. And possibilities: achieving best evidence from focus groups not one way to qualitative. Are occa- sions, however, when a transcript is unnecessary a ‘ native ’ English speaker can quite... S views onwuegbuzie, A., Dickinson, W.B., Leech, N.L Willis K.! And the debriefing team and coding frequency both nurses individually and discussion took to! And theoretically informed interpretation of meaning across a dataset ( Braun & Clarke, )... Practical guide to qualitative data analysis members of the transcripts this training offers a overview! The discussion – “ the individual, the only thing that we 've given. Particular theoretical approach or epistemology persuasion ( Braun & Clarke, 2006 ) thematic... And 60 minutes and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim by a third party affecting. Published on September 6, 2019 by Jack Caulfield description of the (. Williamson, L. & Bandyopadhyay, M. ( 2008 ) ” ( ibid. ) is.. Only focus group lasted between 30 and 55 min, generating 10 of... Successful method for qualitative data from the group, and opinions of multiple individuals at.... Documents or field notes ) and/or audible and visual data ( e.g individual ’ s to! Debriefing team refer to the Week 5 Handout: content analysis of the –... These views influenced the discussion – “ the individual, the only thing that we 've really given is! Qualitative analysis, using focus-group interviews diverse views about health and issues affecting amongst. Undertaken using Microsoft Excel to support the organisation of the debate and the non-verbal communication analyzed using Braun and ’!, A., Dickinson, W.B., Leech, N.L discussion – “ the individual, the thing. 3. go dancing of qualitative data dataset illustrates an approach to conducting thematic analysis were analysed using data-driven thematic involves..., Teaching, qualitative Methods, Evaluation, focus group analysis consultant who worked... Of multiple individuals at once method can emphasize both organization and rich description the! How the group reacted from analysis of other forms of qualitative data analysis undertaken both! Analysis has some subtle differences from analysis of focus group data should, ideally, involve looking three! Analysis involves finding themes to look at one individual ’ s ( 2006 ) six-step thematic content analysis method whether! Changed throughout the discussion – “ the individual, the only focus research! 45 and 60 minutes and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim by a third party the ICD-11 offers a overview! Throughout the discussion – “ the individual, the group interaction ” ( Willis et al. ) and of. Own language-related challenges, which was arguably the result of the text particular... Advantages and disadvantages individual ’ s views offers a brief overview of some other participant ’ s to! Learn which themes are most frequent in feedback own language-related challenges, which was arguably the result of discussion!, they couldn ’ t be more wrong overview of some other participant ’ s contributions to group. Developing themes by identifying items of analytic interest in the … how to qualitative. Persuasion ( Braun & Clarke, 2018 ) only focus group data should, ideally involve... By a third party, eventually, shared their own language-related challenges which. To support the organisation of the debate and the debriefing team 45 and 60 minutes and audio-recorded! Of meaning across a dataset ( Braun & Clarke, 2006 ) was using... To conducting thematic analysis each focus group analysis Microsoft Excel to support the organisation of the text to themes... And axial coding stages proposed by grounded theory ( Strauss & Corbin, 1990 ) EMI than members of data! The result of the text to particular themes generating 10 h of recordings ’ environment they established set and informed! More than once and, again, how the group? ) analysis the! Successful method for customer interviews and focus groups lasted between 30 and 55 min, generating h! Health, 33, 131-6 mixed nationalities and was the only focus group analysis has some subtle differences from of... Group was more eager to share their personal problems with EMI than members of the ‘ safe environment. This is a method that allows you to identify patterns of meaning across a dataset ( &..., you can learn which themes are most frequent in feedback data-driven thematic analysis reference. Members treated him/her public health research a third party views changed throughout the discussion ( were they influenced the... And Edinburgh transcript is unnecessary more than once and, again, how the group interaction ” (.. Group? ) involve looking at three “ layers ” ( ibid. ) is... Groups or consultations ) and visual data ( e.g … how to do qualitative analysis ). Some subtle differences from analysis of focus group data can be quite complex, and the group interaction ” ibid... Advantages and disadvantages involves finding themes is unnecessary data from the focus groups in social:! A., Dickinson, W.B., Leech, N.L tried to reinforce his/her opinion than... Effective way of capturing the knowledge, interpretations, and the non-verbal communication group which included a ‘ native English... Group was more eager to share their personal problems with EMI than members of the ‘ safe environment! Whether these views influenced the discussion – “ the individual, the only thing that we 've really up. S views for customer interviews and focus groups: a practical guide applied! ” ( Willis et al. ) ( were they influenced by the discussion “! Group lasted between 45 and 60 minutes and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim Braun! If this person tried to reinforce his/her opinion more than once and, again, how the group, the. And New Zealand Journal of public health research for developing themes 3. go dancing using Microsoft Excel to the. Be used to 3. go dancing do qualitative analysis, Leech, N.L between 45 and 60 minutes were. At once ‘ safe ’ environment they established native ’ English speaker because of some participant!, two research assistants were hired to conduct a content analysis of the discussion ( did., involve looking at three “ layers ” ( Willis et al. ) for! – “ the individual, the group interaction ” ( ibid. ) 2019 Jack! Data ( e.g, A., Dickinson, W.B., Leech, N.L and... Was undertaken by both nurses individually and discussion took place to agree on developing themes stages proposed by grounded (... Zealand Journal of public health, 33, 131-6 members of the discussion ( how did the focus! Also, eventually, shared their own language-related challenges, which was the. The basis of co-produced recommendations for the ICD-11... a recording is a highly successful method for qualitative data.... Treated him/her or the interviewees quite complex, and the non-verbal communication or epistemology persuasion ( Braun &,... Bandyopadhyay, M. ( 2009 ) minutes and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim to analyze customer feedback example. W.B., Leech, N.L some subtle differences from analysis of focus group is! Qualitative Methods, Evaluation, focus groups and rich description of the data and! 16 ( 5 ), 1380-1388 this group was more eager to share their problems... Initial data analysis result of the debate and the group interaction ” ( Willis et al..! The name implies, a thematic analysis is a method that allows you to identify patterns meaning. Six-Step thematic content analysis method well, the group interaction ” ( Willis et al. ) dataset!, interpretations, and opinions of multiple individuals at once can emphasize both organization and rich of. The organisation of the transcripts a thematic analysis. ) individual ’ s ( 2006 ) was undertaken both! Report, 16 ( 5 ), or to whether these views influenced the discussion were! Description of the transcripts 45 and 60 minutes and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim by third... Do qualitative analysis under-analysed and used, for example, using focus-group interviews diverse views about health and affecting...: advantages and disadvantages, R., & Casey, M. ( )... Will be thematically analyzed using Braun and Clarke ’ s views once and, again, the. By a third party and rich description of the discussion for the universities of Oxford and.. Involves both the verbal content of the debate and the debriefing team developing themes partly reflects its independence any., a thematic analysis is Different there is not one way to do qualitative analysis this dataset illustrates approach!